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"father of lithium-ion battery”, “father of Graphene”,

Time:2020/06/15 丨 source:未知 丨 visit count:

"father of lithium-ion battery, father of Graphene,
father of dye-sensitive solar cells. "  Two of them won the Nobel Prize

"father of lithium-ion battery- John B. Goodenough 

John B. Goodenough, a renowned electrochemist and one of the winners of the 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, is known as "the father of lithium batteries". He is the inventor of the three most important cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganate and lithium iron phosphate, and has made an indelible contribution to the development of lithium ion batteries. He is the founder of this field. Currently, Goodenough is a tenured professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin. He is a well-known solid physicist who mainly designs new materials to solve material science problems by studying the relationship between chemistry, structure, and solid electronic/ionic properties. Professor Goodenough's main research directions are: lithium ion batteries, fuel cells, oxygen permeable membranes, and transition metal oxides. Mainly engaged in energy storage and conversion materials research, developed a medium temperature solid oxide fuel cell and oxygen permeable membrane. At the same time, he is also engaged in the work of synthesizing new ceramic materials, and performing chemical and structural characterization, as well as high temperature, high pressure, and elemental analysis. In addition, Professor Goodenough is also engaged in the study of the mechanism of super giant magnetoresistance when high-temperature superconducting superconductors and electrons change from local to flowing. Professor Goodenough's main research directions are: lithium ion batteries, fuel cells, oxygen permeable membranes, and transition metal oxides. He mainly conducts research on energy storage and conversion materials, and develops medium temperature solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen permeable membranes. At the same time, he is also engaged in the work of synthesizing new ceramic materials, and performing chemical and structural characterization, as well as high temperature, high pressure, and elemental analysis. In addition, Goodenough has worked on the mechanism of supergiant magnetoresistance in high-tc superconductors, where electrons move from local to fluid.The three positive electrode materials found by Professor Goodenough, lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganate and lithium iron phosphate, are his most outstanding achievements, which laid the foundation for the lithium-ion battery widely used in modern society and can be called a generation of great people. Without him, the cell phone battery we use now is nothing more than a "walking explosive bag". Fellow of the British Academy of Sciences Peter G. Bruce and others believe that Professor John B. Goodenough's scientific achievement is enough to win two Nobel Prizes. Professor John B. Goodenough, who won the Nobel Prize at the age of 97, also became the oldest Nobel Prize winner in history.
Recent representative achievements:

Angew:Fast Li+ conduction in oxide/polymer composite electrolytes can be achieved by enhancing surface interaction 

John B. of the University of Texas at Austin. GOODENOUGH's team introduced two commercially available Li + insulating oxide fluorspar GD0.1CE0.9O1.95(GDC) and Perovskite LA0.8SR0.2GA0.8MG0.2O2.55(LSGM) into polyoxyethylene to study the composite electrolytes based on the two oxides / polyoxyethylene (Peo) The Oxygen Vacancy on the particle surface and the whole surface of the two materials can increase the interaction between the oxide surface and the anion of Li-salt in the polymer, thus promoting the mobility of Li + Ions and enhancing the conductivity of Li + Ions. Density functional calculations (DFT) showed the formation of the bond between the anion of Tfsi and the surface of inorganic filler. Compared with Lsgm, GDC has stronger interaction with Tfsi anions. The distribution of Li + at A1 and A2 sites changed with the introduction of GDC or LSGM. The Li + conductivity of the composite electrolyte was improved with the increase of Li + content in the flowing A2 environment. In all-solid-state lithium metal batteries with different cathodes, each composite electrolyte exhibits stable cycling and good performance.
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2. ACS Energy Lett.:Upgrading traditional organic electrolytes to future lithium metal batteries: nano-SiO2 loaded layered gel polymer electrolytes 

Professor John B. Goodenough and Xi’an Jiaotong University Tang Wei, Li Mingtao and others reported a nano-SiO2-supported gel polymer electrolyte, which is an organic liquid electrolyte supported on the SiO2 layer modified by in-situ gelation function Made of. SiO2-GPE exhibits high ionic conductivity, excellent thermal stability and a wide electrochemical window. Due to the low interface resistance between the electrode and SiO2-GPE and the effective suppression of Li dendrites, the LFP/SiO2-GPE/Li battery showed a high discharge capacity of 162.9 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles. This work shows a new strategy to solve the interface problem between lithium metal and traditional liquid electrolyte, which may make the organic electrolyte system develop to the next generation of high energy density lithium metal battery.
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3. AFM:In-situ formation of Li3P layer enables rapid conduction across the Li/solid polymer electrolyte interface 

Professor John B. Goodenough's team and Professor Jin Haibo of Beijing Institute of Technology, etc. added black phosphorus to the polymer electrolyte membrane during the preparation process, so that the Li3P layer on the lithium metal/solid polymer electrolyte interface will be formed in situ during cycling . This in-situ formed layer significantly reduces the interfacial resistance of the lithium metal/solid polymer electrolyte and the total resistance of the all-solid lithium metal battery. The lower resistance of a battery with a polymer electrolyte containing black phosphorus additives greatly enhances the electrochemical performance of the battery, and the battery cycles at a higher current density, while increasing the critical current density of the all-solid lithium metal battery.
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4. AFM:Study on the reaction mechanism of PEO-based electrolyte to solid-state lithium ion battery 

Professor John B. Goodenough's team adopted polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with a lower DN as a binder in sulfur cathodes. As a result, by inhibiting the formation of polysulfides by the PVDF polymer, the cycle performance of PEO-based Li–S batteries can be significantly improved. During the cycle, no long-chain polysulfide intermediates were generated in the PVDF-coated sulfur cathode, indicating that sulfur was directly converted to solid Li2S2/Li2S. Therefore, the solid-state Li–S battery can maintain a reversible discharge capacity of 630 mAh g-1 after 60 cycles at 0.05 mA cm-2 and 55°C. Realizing a one-step "solid-solid" reaction in PEO-based solid-state Li-S batteries provides a new way for the development of high-performance Li-S batteries with long cycle stability.
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father of Graphene- Andre Geim 

Andre Geim is a professor at the School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Manchester. He received his doctorate in Russia in 1987, and continued his research work in the UK and Denmark. In 1994, he served as an associate professor at Nijmegen University in the Netherlands and cooperated with Konstantin Novoselov for the first time. In 2001, he served as professor of physics at the University of Manchester. In 2004, the two-dimensional material graphene was discovered in collaboration with Novoselov, and the two of them jointly won the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics. After winning the Nobel Prize, Heim won the title of Knight of the Netherlands and England. Published more than 250 top articles in his career, of which more than 30 were published in Nature and Science. More than 20 articles were cited more than 1000 times, 4 of which were cited more than 10,000 times. He is also the only scientist in the world who has won both the Nobel Prize and the Funny Nobel Prize. In an interview after the award, Andre Heim said: "I slept soundly last night because I did not expect to Winning the prize. When some people get the Nobel Prize, they start to stop doing research, and even stop doing a lot of things he should do, and other things will haunt him for many years, so he can't concentrate on work. But for me In general, I will continue my research as usual, work hard, and enjoy the research.” Andre Geim’s story is far from over. People all over the world are staring at him. In the future, he will continue to bring us surprises and joy.
Recent representative achievements:

1. Nature: Gas permeability limit of graphene 

Professor A. K. Geim, a Nobel Prize winner at the University of Manchester in England, used a small graphene-sealed single crystal container. The study found that defect-free graphene is impermeable to water, and its accuracy is 8-9 orders of magnitude higher than previous studies. The researchers were able to discern the penetration of only a few helium atoms per hour, and this detection limit also applies to all other test gases (neon, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, krypton, and xenon) except hydrogen. Although hydrogen molecules are larger than helium molecules and undergo a higher energy barrier, they still show significant penetration. This unusual result is attributed to the two-stage process, which involves dissociation of hydrogen molecules at the highly catalytically active graphene ripples, followed by the adsorption of hydrogen atoms with relatively low activation energy to transition to graphene sheets. The other side. This research work provides a key reference for the impermeability of two-dimensional materials, and is of great significance from the perspective of basic research and their potential applications.
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2. Nature Commun:Electron scattering control in single-layer graphene 

Professor AK Geim's team measured the electron scattering length of electrons in graphene by using a device with an atomic layer thick gate gate dielectric layer and an atomic layer thick metal gate, and reported a qualitative deviation from standard behavior . Only at a thickness of a few nanometers of the gate dielectric, the change caused by shielding is much smaller than the typical separation between electrons. The theoretical analysis is in good agreement with the scattering rate obtained from the measurement of the electron viscosity in the single-layer graphene and the measurement result of the Umklapp electron-electron scattering in the graphene superlattice. The research provides guidance for the realization of multi-body research in a two-dimensional system in the future.
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father of dye-sensitive solar cells. " -Michael Grätzel 

Michael Grätzel, director of the interface and photonics laboratory of the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, and an internationally renowned scientist, is mainly engaged in the research of organic solar cells and perovskite solar cells; he has pioneered the research and development of energy and electron transfer reactions in mesoscopic material systems. Its application in energy conversion systems, especially photovoltaic cells and photoelectrochemical devices, is used to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen, and to reduce carbon dioxide through sunlight. And power storage in lithium-ion batteries. He also co-invented the dye-sensitized solar cell with Professor Brian O'Regan, which was later called the Grätzel cell. Published more than 1500 papers in international academic journals, including Nature, Science, Nat.Nano., Nat. Mat., J. Am. Chem.Soc., Angew., Adv. Mater., etc. The papers have been cited more than 227000, H factor 218, became one of the three most cited scientists in the world; he has authored two books and holds more than 50 patents.
Recent representative achievements:

1. AM:23.5% efficiency! Amphoteric molecular passivation for the preparation of highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells 

Professor Michael Grätzel of the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland (EPFL) and Professor Li Xianggao of Tianjin University have introduced a carefully designed passivating agent, namely 4-tert-butyl-benzyl ammonium iodide (tBBAI), which has a huge tert-butyl The radical group prevents unfavorable aggregation due to spatial repulsion. It was found that a simple surface treatment with tBBAI can significantly accelerate the charge extraction from perovskite to spiro-OMeTAD hole transport agent, while hindering the reorganization of non-radiative charge carriers. This increases the PSC's power conversion efficiency (PCE) from approximately 20% to 23.5%, thereby reducing hysteresis to a level that is almost undetectable. Importantly, the tBBAI treatment increased the fill factor from 0.75 to an extremely high value of 0.82, which is consistent with the reduction of the ideal factor from 1.72 to 1.34, confirming the inhibition of radiation-free carrier recombination. Tert-butyl also provides a hydrophobic umbrella that protects the perovskite film from the surrounding moisture. As a result, under continuous solar radiation simulation and maximum power point tracking, the PSC showed excellent operational stability after 500 hours of full sunlight, which can retain more than 95% of its initial PCE.
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2. JACS:Two-dimensional 19F solid-state NMR spectroscopy reveals supramolecular modulation of hybrid perovskite solar cells via bifunctional halogen bonds

Professor Michael Grätzel's team uses the bifunctional regulator 1,2,4,5-tetrafluoro-3,6-diiodobenzene (TFDIB) to interact with the hybrid perovskite through the halogen bond (XB). The researchers used two-dimensional 19F solid-state NMR spectroscopy as a tool to clarify its mode of action by combining density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The modulation of perovskite solar cells can improve stability under continuous lighting while maintaining excellent photovoltaic performance. This demonstrates the potential of supramolecular modulation in solar cell research through XB. This work reveals the role of dual-function XB in improving the stability and structure-performance relationship of perovskite solar cells, thus providing guidance for molecular design in perovskite photovoltaic technology.
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3. Angew.: Efficient and stable FA-based perovskite solar cells 

Professor Michael Grätzel's team uses a stepwise annealing method to stabilize the FAPbI3-based perovskite by effectively inhibiting the formation of the delta-FAPbI3 non-perovskite phase. By using the catalytic activity of MAC1 and the surface coating of the IBA2FAPb2I7 layer customized by the molecule, a PCE of nearly 23% can be achieved, which is the highest value reported for pure FAPbI3 based PSC. The PSC of this 2D coating exhibits excellent operational stability under a thermal stress of 80 oC. This work provides an effective method for stabilizing and improving the operational stability of perovskite based on FAPbI3, paving the way for the future industrialization of PSC.
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